HUMAN RIGHTS IN SRI LANKA

Amnesty International Report

THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL MUST STEP UP EFFORTS TO
ADVANCE ACCOUNTABILITY FOR SERIOUS VIOLATIONS IN SRI LANKA

Amnesty International urges the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council (HRC), when it meets
for its 46th session (22 February – 19 March 2021), to establish an international accountability
mechanism to continue to monitor and report on the human rights situation in Sri Lanka, and to collect,
preserve and assess evidence of gross human rights violations.
As this paper details, such a mechanism is critical in the face of the continued deterioration of the
human rights situation on the ground, including: increased attacks on human rights organizations,
media, and members of the Muslim community; backsliding on the limited progress made on the
implementation of HRC resolution 30/1, including on accountability; and Sri Lanka’s announcement
they are disengaging from the 30/1 process altogether.
We hope to see states work towards such an appropriate response, in line with the clear
recommendations of the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), when the
HRC meets for its 46th session.
CONTINUED DETERIORATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION ON THE GROUND
Over the past few years – and the past year in particular – we have witnessed an alarming crackdown
on civic space in Sri Lanka, with increased targeting and intimidation of human rights defenders,1
journalists,2 and lawyers.3 Among others, Amnesty International has documented the harassment of
New York Times journalist Dharisha Bastians,4 the arbitrary detention of blogger Ramzy Razeek (amid
deteriorating health),5 and lawyer Hejaaz Hizbullah,6 and has followed the ongoing criminal
investigation against writer Shakthika Sathkumara.7 The real threat of reprisals is already having a
chilling effect. Lawyers, journalists and criminal investigators who pursued accountability for human
rights violations have already fled the country. Under new directives, law enforcement officers have
arrested social media commentators for criticizing officials in relation to the government’s COVID-19
response.
The Secretary-General’s latest report on reprisals against human rights defenders cooperating with the
United Nations noted that, “OHCHR received continued allegations of surveillance of civil society
organizations, human rights defenders and families of victims of violations, including repeated visits
by police and intelligence services, questioning organizations about, inter alia, their staff and activities
related to the UN.”8 The report noted that a number of Sri Lankans who have travelled to Geneva to
attend sessions of the HRC have been subjected to questioning and surveillance.
The issue of “reprisals against judicial and other professionals who try to prosecute human-rights
related cases involving State officials,” highlighted in the 2015 OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka
report, also remains a huge challenge. More than 700 law enforcement officials with the Criminal
2
Investigations Department (CID) within the police who investigated human rights violations were
placed under a travel ban soon after the new government came into power in November 2019 and
the former Director of the CID who led those investigations was arrested under dubious charges. The
former director whose family believes he is being targeted for seeking accountability for human rights
violations, recently tested positive for COVID-19 while in the custody of prison authorities, and was
denied access to a hospital for days.9 Lawyers appearing as counsel in human rights cases have been
intimidated and arrested.10 We are also alarmed by reports that families of the disappeared who have
been leading peaceful protests have been harassed by the police Terrorism Investigation Division.11
Amnesty International is also increasingly concerned about the targeting and discrimination of
minorities in Sri Lanka. As noted by the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed
Shaheed, Muslim communities in Sri Lanka have faced increasing hostility, especially after the April
2019 bombings. In his end of mission report (August 2019), he expressed concern that “prior impunity
has strengthened the anti-Muslim groups,” and that “weak and un-coordinated responses to anti-
Muslim violence have seen the rise in violence and attacks on individuals and the communities in
some parts of the country.”12 The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights also noted in her February
2020 update the “increasing levels of hate speech, and security and policy measures,” that “appear
to be discriminately and disproportionately directed against minorities, both Tamil and Muslim.”13
Amnesty International has documented patterns and examples of violence and advocacy of hatred,
discrimination against the Muslim community in Sri Lanka dating back to 2013.14 Despite
investigations carried out by the police, the perpetrators of these violent attacks have not been held
accountable. The impunity enjoyed by perpetrators have emboldened and precipitated repeat attacks.
This increased discrimination against the Muslim community has also been seen in the government’s
response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Amnesty International,15 and a group of UN special
rapporteurs,16 have raised significant concern over the forced cremations of Muslims who have died
of COVID-19 on the directives of the authorities, against the wishes of the families of the deceased.
For Sri Lanka’s Muslim community, which makes up close to ten per cent of the population, burials
are considered to be a requirement of the final rites in accordance with Islamic traditions.
Sri Lanka has consistently refused to repeal the draconian Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA), a law
which facilitates arbitrary detention and removes safeguards against torture of detainees. The law was
used to disproportionately target Sri Lanka’s Muslim community following the bombings in April 2019
and was used to arbitrarily arrest Hejaaz Hizbullah and Ahnaf Jazeem in 2020. Hejaaz Hizbullah, a
prominent lawyer, has been in custody since 14 April 2020 without a shred of evidence being
produced before the court of any wrongdoing.17 He has tested positive for COVID-19 during his time
in detention, where he was only permitted limited access to family and legal counsel till recently. Ahnaf
Jazeem, a Muslim poet was arrested under the PTA for a collection of poems he published under the
title ‘Navarasam.’ The poems, written in Tamil, have allegedly been misinterpreted by Sinhalesespeaking
law enforcement officers to presume that they contain “extremist” messages. Ahnaf, who is
still in custody has had no legal representation for more than six months since his arrest.
With COVID-19 spreading within Sri Lanka’s severely overcrowded prisons, at least 14 inmates in three
different prisons have been killed in custody since March, due to unrest that erupted over fears and
anxiety over the virus. More than 100 others have been injured.18
LACK OF ACCOUNTABILITY
The OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka concluded that war crimes and crimes against humanity were
most likely committed by both sides to the conflict and recommended the establishment of a hybrid
special court, integrating international judges, prosecutors, lawyers and investigators, as an essential
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step towards justice. Eleven years after the end of the armed conflict, however, the relatives of those
disappeared are still awaiting answers and Sri Lanka has the second largest number of enforced
disappearance cases in the world registered with the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary
Disappearances.
While HRC resolution 30/119 fell short of establishing a hybrid court, as recommended by the OHCHR
Investigation on Sri Lanka, through negotiation and compromise it did secure Sri Lanka’s commitment
to establishing a “judicial mechanism with a special counsel to investigate allegations of violations and
abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law,” with the participation of
“Commonwealth and other foreign judges, defence lawyers and authorized prosecutors and
investigators.” More than five years later, however, no progress has been made towards the creation
of such a mechanism. At the same time, we have seen alarming developments at the national level,
undermining the limited progress on accountability made to date. For example:

  • 13 members of the security forces accused of the murder of five students in the town of
    Trincomalee in 2006 were acquitted by the court in July 2019, citing “a lack of evidence.”20
  • A Presidential Commission of Inquiry on political victimization was created in January 2020, which
    we fear may interfere with ongoing court proceedings, including in the case of the disappearance
    of Prageeth Eknaligoda.21 The Commission22 has already purported to order, without legal authority,
    the attorney general to halt legal proceedings against navy officers accused of the enforced
    disappearance and alleged killing of 11 young men in Colombo and its suburbs in 2008 and 2009.23
  • In March 2020, Sergeant Sunil Rathnayaka, a convicted perpetrator of the Mirusuvil massacre in
    which eight Tamil civilians were killed, received a Presidential pardon and was released from jail.
    Among the victims of the Mirusuvil massacre were three children, one aged 15, one 13, and a fiveyear-
    old whose body sustained signs of torture.24 In a statement issued by her spokesperson, the
    UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, lambasted the pardon as “an affront
    to victims and yet another example of the failure of Sri Lanka to fulfil its international human rights
    obligations to provide meaningful accountability for war crimes, crimes against humanity and other
    gross violations of human rights.” She noted that, “Pardoning one of the sole convicted perpetrators
    of atrocities committed during the Sri Lankan conflict further undermines the limited progress the
    country has made towards ending impunity for mass human rights abuse.”25
  • The new administration has promoted and appointed several military officials named in the 2015
    OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka report to senior positions. The High Commissioner26 and Special
    Procedures27 expressed concern, for example, over the appointment of Lieutenant-General
    Shavendra Silva as Commander of the Sri Lankan Army in August 2019.
  • In January 2021 the Attorney General’s department informed the Batticaloa High Court that it will
    not continue the prosecution in the 2005 murder case of former Tamil National Alliance (TNA)
    Parliamentarian Joseph Pararajasingham.. Accordingly, the court acquitted all five suspects in the
    case, including MP Sivanesathurai Chandrakanthan (alias Pillayan), who is the leader of Tamil
    Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP), a government-aligned political party.28 At the time of the murder,
    MP Chandrakanthan was a member of the paramilitary group led by Karuna Amman, which broke
    away from the LTTE.
    Since coming into power in November 2019, the current government has stopped issuing interim relief
    payments to families of the “missing” and those subjected to enforced disappearance, putting them
    under further financial strain. Fearing that the work of Sri Lanka’s Office on Missing Persons will enable
    war crime charges to be brought against the Sri Lankan military, the government has also stated that
    it will review the Act establishing the Office.29 In December 2020, the President appointed a new
    Chairperson to the Office on Missing Persons. Retired Supreme Court judge Upali Abeyratne served
    as the Chairman to the Presidential Commission of Inquiry on political victimization, when the
    4
    Commission attempted to interfere in the prosecution of state actors accused of enforced
    disappearances. Families of the forcibly disappeared have voiced concerns around the future,
    commitment and the independence of domestic mechanisms like the Office on Missing Persons.
    Further, there has been no progress in establishing a truth commission and only limited progress has
    been made towards returning military-occupied land back to its civilian owners, in line with HRC
    resolution 30/1.
    Following clear messages at both national and international level that the new government would
    reverse the limited and hard-won progress on accountability, in February 2020, it announced30 its
    “commitment to achieve sustainable peace through an inclusive, domestically designed and executed
    reconciliation and accountability process.” Sri Lanka has a long history of such processes, however,
    the repeated failure of which, the OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka report noted “has led to
    skepticism, anger and mistrust on the part of victims.”31 In her update to the HRC in February 2020,
    the High Commissioner made clear her scepticism that the appointment of “yet another Commission
    of Inquiry” could advance accountability for past violations, noting the “systemic barriers that continue
    to exist within the criminal justice system remain an impediment to real justice”32 at the national level.
    These “systemic barriers” were detailed in the OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka report and flagged
    by the former High Commissioner33: 1) “the absence of any reliable system for victim and witness
    protection”;34 2) “the inadequacy of Sri Lanka’s domestic legal framework to deal with international
    crimes of this magnitude”; and 3) “the degree to which Sri Lanka’s security sector and justice system
    have been distorted and corrupted by decades of emergency, conflict and impunity.”35 Although the
    state of emergency has now lapsed, the other issues remain. The 20th amendment to the Constitution,
    passed into law in October 2020, introduced significant changes to the powers of parliament and the
    President and has significant effects on the independence of commissions and the judiciary. Following
    the amendment, many appointments including to independent commissions such as the Election
    Commission, the National Police Commission, the Human Rights Commission, appointments to the
    Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Attorney-General and the Inspector-General of Police are
    made by the President. The Parliamentary Council which replaced the Constitutional Council brought
    in by the 19th amendment only has powers to make non-binding observations on the appointments to
    the President. As a consequence of the amendment, at present there is no reliable recourse for
    accountability for human rights violations domestically.
    In short, as noted by the High Commissioner in her February 2020 update to the HRC, “victims remain
    denied justice and Sri Lankans from all communities have no guarantee that past patterns of human
    rights violations will not recur.”36
    ROLE OF THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
    In this context, the HRC has a critical role to play – both in sending a clear message to victims and
    perpetrators alike that the international community remains committed to human rights and
    accountability in Sri Lanka; and by putting in place a mechanism or process to support medium- to
    long-term accountability efforts, in line with the current and former High Commissioners’ clear and
    consistent concerns and recommendations in that regard.
    The report of the OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka made clear that the HRC should “continue to
    monitor human rights developments and progress towards accountability and reconciliation,” and that
    “if insufficient progress is made, the [HRC] should consider further international action to ensure
    accountability for international crimes.”37 As detailed above, five years later, not only has insufficient
    progress been made, but the new government is rolling back on previous gains and has made clear
    its commitment to impunity for serious crimes.
    5
    In this context, on the basis of the clear findings of the OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka report and
    subsequent updates and reports by the OHCHR, the HRC must launch a new process or mechanism
    to pursue the objectives of resolution 30/1: to end the cycle of impunity and advance accountability
    for international crimes with a view to deterring future violations, particularly against minority
    communities and civil society groups. Central to the new approach must be continued monitoring and
    reporting on the situation, as well as the collection, analysis, and preservation of evidence for future
    prosecutions. The empty promises of national-level accountability processes should – on the basis of
    experience and clear analysis by the High Commissioner (see above) – not be considered an
    alternative to an international approach. Nor should Sri Lanka’s brazen rejection of a consensus-based
    international framework for pursuing human rights and accountability, and refusal to cooperate in this
    regard, be rewarded by the HRC taking a step back. Rather, the HRC should strengthen its resolve.
    We urge all States at the HRC to encourage and support the robust approach necessary. To do
    otherwise would be to send a very dangerous message to perpetrators everywhere that even a state
    accused of the most grave crimes under international law can escape meaningful scrutiny by the HRC
    and benefit from rewards by merely refusing to cooperate with a carefully negotiated process. States
    should stand on the side of victims, their families, and all those pursuing justice and the protection of
    human rights on the ground, often at great personal risk, by putting in place a mechanism that can
    monitor and report on the situation, and collect and preserve evidence for future prosecutions.
    REFERENCES
    1 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Attacks on human rights organisations, media organisations and journalists in Sri Lanka, 16
    January 2020, Index number: ASA 37/1678/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/1678/2020/en/.
    2 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Joint letter to President Rajapaksa on the harassment and intimidation of journalists, 25 February
    2020, Index number: ASA 37/1860/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/1860/2020/en/.
    3 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: human rights under attack, 29 July 2020, Index number: ASA 37/2802/2020, available at:
    https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2802/2020/en/.
    4 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: End persecution of journalist Dharisha Bastians targeted for reports, defense of human rights, 24
    June 2020, Index number: ASA 37/2568/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2568/2020/en/.
    5 Although Ramzy Razeek was released on bail on 17 September, the criminal investigation against him has not been closed.
    Amnesty International issued an Urgent Action in May on Ramzy’s deteriorating health condition before he was released on bail. At
    the time of his release he had a fractured arm due to a fall while in custody and had not received the required medical attention. Due
    to an infection, one of his toes were also amputated (see https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2357/2020/en/). In the cases
    of both Ramzy Razeek and Shakthika Sathkumara, the police reports cite the domestic International Covenant on Civil and Political
    Rights (ICCPR) Act as one of the legal bases for the arrest. The ICCPR Act was adopted to implement Sri Lanka’s international
    human rights obligations as a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Using the ICCPR Act in this
    manner is a misuse of a law that is supposed to protect, not violate, human rights.
    6 Hejaaz Hizbullah remains in detention without charge or any credible evidence of wrongdoing. During his detention for more than
    six months under Sri Lanka’s draconian Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA), he has only been granted restricted access to legal
    counsel or to his family. A third detention order to hold him for another 90 days was issued this month. He must be released without
    further delay.
    7 Writer Shakthika Sathkumara was arrested on April 1, 2019 after publishing a short fictional story on his Facebook page, in which
    he hinted at child sexual abuse taking place in a Buddhist monastery. While he was released on bail on August 5, 2019, the criminal
    investigation against him has not been closed. If charged and convicted, he could face up to 10 years in prison. The hearings have
    been repeatedly delayed, with the next hearing not scheduled until early 2021. Amnesty International declared him a Prisoner of
    Conscience, as he was imprisoned solely for peacefully exercising his right to freedom of expression and called his immediate and
    unconditional release. In the cases of both Ramzy Razeek and Shakthika Sathkumara, the police reports cite the domestic
    International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) Act as one of the legal bases for the arrest. The ICCPR Act was adopted
    to implement Sri Lanka’s international human rights obligations as a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political
    Rights. Using the ICCPR Act in this manner is a misuse of a law that is supposed to protect, not violate, human rights.
    8 Report of the Secretary-General, Cooperation with the United Nations, its representatives and mechanisms in the field of human
    rights, 25 September 2020, UN Doc. A/HRC/45/36, paras 120-121, available at: https://undocs.org/en/A/HRC/45/36.
    9 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Former police investigator jailed with covid-19: Shani Abeysekara, 27 November 2020, Index
    number: ASA 37/3403/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/3403/2020/en/.
    10 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: human rights under attack, 29 July 2020, Index number: ASA 37/2802/2020, available at:
    https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2802/2020/en/.
    6
    11 Tamil Guardian, Sri Lanka’s TID attempt to end disappearances protests through interrogations, 2020,
    https://www.tamilguardian.com/content/sri-lanka%E2%80%99s-tid-attempt-end-disappearances-protests-through-interrogations.
    12 OHCHR, Preliminary findings of Country Visit to Sri Lanka by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, 26 August
    2019, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=24918&LangID=E.
    13 https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25624&LangID=E.
    14 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Eliminating intolerance and discrimination based on religion or belief and the achievement of
    sustainable development goal 16 in Sri Lanka: submission to the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, 8 June 2020,
    Index number: ASA 37/2487/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2487/2020/en/.
    15 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Religious minorities must have their final rites respected, 3 April 2020,
    https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/04/sri-lanka-religious-minorities-must-have-their-final-rites-respected/.
    16 Joint Letter of Allegation by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief; the Special Rapporteur on the right of
    everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health; the Special Rapporteur on minority
    issues; and the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering
    terrorism, LKA 2/2020, 8 April 2020,
    https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25175.
    17 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Prominent human rights lawyer arbitrarily detained for six months must be released, 16 October
    2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/10/sri-lanka-prominent-human-rights-lawyer-arbitrarily-detained-forsix-
    months-must-be-released/.
    18 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Prison deaths must be investigated amid growing COVID-19 unrest, 30 November 2020,
    available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/11/sri-lanka-prison-deaths-must-be-investigated-amid-growing-covid19-
    unrest/.
    19 UNHRC Resolution 30/1 available at, https://www.mfa.gov.lk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/RES-30-1.pdf
    20 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: justice for the Trinco 5, 9 August 2019, Index number: ASA 37/0862/2019, available at:
    https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/0862/2019/en/.
    21 See https://twitter.com/amnestysasia/status/1309039133772443648?s=20.
    22 Daily News, President appoints high-powered commission to probe previous govt, 2020,
    https://www.dailynews.lk/2020/01/11/local/208087/president-appoints-high-powered-commission-probe-previous-govt.
    23 DailyFT, PCOI orders AG to halt investigations into former Navy Chief and Spokesperson, 2020, http://www.ft.lk/news/PCOI-orders-
    AG-to-halt-investigations-into-former-Navy-Chief-and-Spokesperson/56-694500.
    24 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Amid pandemic, Sri Lanka pardons soldier convicted of massacre, 30 April 2020, Index number:
    ASA 37/2247/2020, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/2247/2020/en/.
    25 OHCHR, Press briefing note on Sri Lanka, 27 March 2020,
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25752&LangID=E.
    26 OHCHR, Bachelet “deeply troubled” by appointment of new Sri Lankan army chief, 19 August 2019,
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=24908&LangID=E.
    27 OHCHR, Sri Lanka: UN experts say army chief appointment is “affront to victims” of rights abuses, 27 August 2019,
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=24923&LangID=E.
    28 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Collapse of Joseph Pararajasingham murder case a failure of justice, 13 January 2021, available
    at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2021/01/sri-lanka-collapse-of-joseph-pararajasingham-murder-case-a-failure-of-justice/.
    29 Amnesty International, Sri Lanka: Commit funds to support transitional justice process for victims of conflict, 16 November 2020,
    available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/11/sri-lanka-commit-funds-to-support-transitional-justice-process-forvictims-
    of-conflict/.
    30 Statement by Dinesh Gunawardena, Minister of Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka at the High Level segment of the 43rd Session of the
    Human Rights Council, 26 February 2020, https://mfa.gov.lk/43rd-session-hrc/
    31 OHCHR, Zeid urges creation of hybrid special court in Sri Lanka as UN report confirms patterns of grave violations, 16 September
    2015, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16432&LangID=E.
    32 Oral update by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, and introduction to country reports of
    the Secretary-General and the High Commissioner (Colombia,Cyprus, Eritrea,Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka,
    Venezuela, Yemen), 43rd session of the UN Human Rights Council, 27 February 2020, available at:
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25624&LangID=E.
    33 OHCHR, Zeid urges creation of hybrid special court in Sri Lanka as UN report confirms patterns of grave violations , available at:
    https://www.ohchr.org/SP/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=16432&LangID=S.
    34 Although victim and witness protection laws were introduced there is no independent authority to ensure protection.
    35 OHCHR, Zeid urges creation of hybrid special court in Sri Lanka as UN report confirms patterns of grave violations , available at:
    https://www.ohchr.org/SP/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=16432&LangID=S.
    36 Oral update by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, and introduction to country reports of
    the Secretary-General and the High Commissioner (Colombia,Cyprus, Eritrea,Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka,
    Venezuela, Yemen), 43rd session of the UN Human Rights Council, 27 February 2020, available at:
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25624&LangID=E.
    37 OHCHR, Comprehensive report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on Sri Lanka, 28
    September 2015, UN Doc. A/HRC/30/61, Para 92 (e

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